Insurance Terms


The terms defined below are provided for general informational purposes. They are only intended to be descriptions of the terms conditions and exclusions applicable to the insurance products and services. If there is any inconsistency between the definitions below and the definitions appearing in the actual policy the definitions that appear in an actual policy shall govern.

A  back to index

ABANDONMENT Relinquishment of ownership of property that has been lost or damaged and "abandoned" to the Insurance Company for the purpose of claiming a total loss.

ACCIDENT An unexpected event, which happens by chance and is not expected in the normal course of events.

ACT OF GOD A sudden and violent act of nature, which could not have been foreseen or prevented. Examples: flood, earthquake

ACTUAL CASH VALUE The actual or current value at the time of the loss. Actual cash value takes depreciation into consideration.

ADDITIONAL INSURED A person other than the named insured who is protected by the terms of the policy. Most automobile policies, for example, insure a specific individual as an insured, but also insure anyone driving with the insured's consent. The additional insured may be "named" or "unnamed".

ADDITIONAL LIVING EXPENSE INSURANCE Coverage applicable when an insured's dwelling is damaged by an insured peril to such an extent that one cannot live in it until repaired. This insurance pays the extra amount it costs to live elsewhere until repairs are made, such as the cost of living in a hotel.

ADDITIONAL PREMIUM An extra charge for an alteration, during the policy period, which increases the hazard or the Company's liability.

ADJUSTER A person who investigates a loss and negotiates settlement with the claimant on the Company's behalf.

ALARM SYSTEM System guarding against theft and/or fire.

ALL PERILS An optional coverage designed to provide protection for your vehicle for all types of losses except those specifically excluded in your policy. All perils coverage is the most complete coverage you can select to protect yourself from loss or damage to your own vehicle. This coverage is optional and may be purchased in addition to the mandatory coverages required by law, and it is subject to a deductible.

ALL RISK Coverage against loss or damage from all perils except those specifically excluded.

AMOUNT OF RISK The limit of payment for which an insurer is liable under a policy.

APPLICANT The person, business or company requesting insurance.

APPLICATION (APP) A form on which the prospective insured states facts requested by the insurance company and on the basis of which (together with any information from other sources) the insurance company decides whether or not to accept the risk, modify the coverage offered, or decline the risk.

APPRAISAL A valuation of property made for determining its insurable value or the amount of loss sustained.

ARSON The willful and malicious burning of property.

ASSUMED LIABILITY Liability, which would not rest upon a person except that he has accepted responsibility by contract, expressed or implied. This is also known as contractual liability.

ASSURANCE Same as "insurance". ASSURED Same as "insured".

ASSURER Same as "insurer" (insurance company).

AUTHORIZATION The power or right to act on behalf of another.

AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE Coverage on the risks associated with driving or owning an automobile. It can include collision, liability, comprehensive, medical, and uninsured motorist coverages.

AVOIDANCE OF RISK Taking steps to remove a hazard, engage in an alternative activity, or otherwise end a specific exposure.

B  back to index

BAILEE Person to whom goods or property are entrusted for a stated purpose, whether in exchange for payment (consideration) or not. Also called a Depository.

BASIC RATE The standard charge for a given type of risk. BI/PD Bodily Injury / Property Damage Liability Coverage.

BILL OF LADING A contract between the trucking company and the shipper that provides details of the cargo including: what it is, what it weighs, where it is going and the limit of the carriers' liability, either by weight or declared value.

BINDER Proof of insurance of property that identifies the creditor or lessor, pending issuance of a policy. The binder has the same value as the policy, and must be terminated in the same manner, as an issued policy would be. Also referred to as Cover note.

BODILY INJURY Term used in Auto and Casualty policies meaning physical injury, including sickness, disease, mental injury, shock or death.

BODILY INJURY LIABILITY Pays when an insured person is legally liable for bodily injury or death caused by your vehicle or your operation of most non-owned vehicles. This coverage also pays for your legal defense if you are sued.

BOND A financial instrument used to raise capital that represents an unconditional promise to pay a principal sum of money and interest payments at fixed dates.

BROAD FORM Any of the commercial or personal lines property forms which provide coverage on a named perils basis. This form normally adds the Extended Coverage and Vandalism and Malicious Mischief coverages. This form is generally used for coverages on a Homeowners Policy

BROKER An independent person or firm who acts on behalf of the insured in placing business with the insurance company. Responsible for the collection of premiums but having no authority to give coverage on the insurance company's behalf without their specific agreement. Compensation is on a commission basis.

BUILDERS RISK INSURANCE Insurance coverage on property under construction, including loss to buildings, machinery and equipment. Materials incidental to construction are also covered.

BURGLARY Unlawful removal of property from premises involving visible forcible entry.

BUSINESS INTERRUPTION Insurance against business expenses and loss of income resulting from fire or other insured peril.

C  back to index

CANCELLATION Termination of an insurance coverage during the policy period by the voluntary act of the insurance company or insured, effected in accordance with provisions in the contract or by mutual agreement.

CARGO What is being carried/transported by the truck; the freight

CATASTROPHE A sudden, great disaster.

CERTIFICATES The documents providing insurance coverage information, issued by an insurance company for the information of an interested third party (i.e., a shipper).

CIVIL LIABILITY Liability to other motorists, pedestrians and property owners that you assume when operating your automobile on a public roadway.

CLAIM Notice to an insurer that under the terms of a policy, a loss may be covered.

CLAIM A requirement by an individual or corporation to recover a loss covered by an insurance policy

CLAUSE A term used to identify a particular part of a policy or endorsement.

COINSURANCE Clause in an insurance policy requiring the policyholder to maintain insurance at least equal to a specified minimum percentage of the actual cash value, failing which the policyholder must bear, in addition to the deductible amount, a proportionate amount of any partial loss. Also known as Guaranteed amount clause, Average clause, Rule of apportionment.

COLLATERAL An asset that is pledged as insurance against the default of payment of a debt.

COLLISION COVERAGE An optional coverage designed to provide protection for your vehicle when damage occurs as a result of a collision with another object. This coverage is optional and may be purchased in addition to the mandatory coverages required by law, and it is subject to a deductible.

COMMERCIAL OCCUPANCY The portion of a building used for the transaction of business.

COMMON CARRIER A person or company that transports commodities/goods for compensation and usually for different customers. Also known as "for-hire" carrier.

COMPREHENSIVE INSURANCE Comprehensive insurance reimburses you for damage to your own car from causes other than collision or overturning. The comprehensive portion of your policy pays for loss due to perils like hail, flood, theft, fire, glass breakage, falling objects, missiles, explosions, earthquakes, windstorms, vandalism or malicious mischief, riot or civil commotion, and collision with a bird or an animal. When you look at a policy's comprehensive coverage, check for EXCLUSION or limitations. If you have a special audio system installed in your car, for example, you should make sure your policy would cover the cost of the equipment if it were damaged or stolen. It's also important to know if the policy pays for the ACTUAL CASH VALUE of damaged or stolen property (its current value after depreciation has been subtracted or the full amount required to replace it today.)

COMPULSORY INSURANCE Any form of insurance, which is required by law.

CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGE A loss, which is an indirect result of an accident or fire, e.g. food, spoiled through breakdown of a refrigerator.

CONTINGENT CARGO INSURANCE Provides insurance protection to carriers in the event that a subcontracted carrier causes damage to the cargo, and their insurance fails to respond because of a "contingency". The "contingencies" under which this coverage applies are detailed in the coverage form.

CONTRACT CARRIER A person or company that operates under a contract to a small number of shippers. The contract often contains some of the details that normally would be itemized on each Bill of Lading, but are stated on the contract for the sake of simplicity

CONVICTION Conviction under the Highway Safety Code or any other legislation governing vehicular traffic.

CORPORATION, LEGAL ENTITY, CORPORATE BODY, CORPORATE PERSON Corporation that does not include a partnership and is considered a separate legal entity, empowered to enter into and be bound by agreements

COVER The nature of protection afforded by a particular policy. The amount of insurance applicable to a person or property. At times, interchangeable with the terms Insurance and Protection.COVERAGE Insurance.

CVOR NUMBER The Commercial Vehicle Operation Registration number that identifies each registered operator of a commercial vehicle in Ontario.

CVOR SUMMARY A report that provides details of on-road performance, including infractions such as logbook violations, registered by the Ontario M.O.T. against the registered operator, normally the trucking company.

D  back to index

DAMAGE Any material or bodily loss or harm suffered by a person. Not to be confused with Damages (financial compensation for such loss).

DEATH BENEFIT Amount stated in policy to be paid to a survivor upon proof of death of the insured.

DEBRIS REMOVAL A provision in an insurance policy most commonly found in fire insurance, providing indemnification for the cost of removal of the debris after a loss.

DECLARATIONS (DEC SHEET) Term used in insurance for the portion of the contract which contains information such as the name and address of the insured, the property insured, its location and description, the policy period, the amount of insurance coverage, applicable premiums, and supplemental representations by the insured. · Types of coverage you have elected; · Limit for each coverage; · Cost for each coverage; · Specified vehicles covered by the policy; · Types of coverage for each vehicle covered by the policy; and · Other information applicable to the policy.

DEDUCTIBLE The portion of a loss that you are required to pay before your insurance coverage will respond. Deductibles can be used to reduce your physical damage premiums. For example, if you owned a policy with a $200 deductible and you suffered a covered loss totaling $1,000, you would pay the first $200 and the insurance company would pay the remaining $800. If the loss were only $200, you would pay the entire amount and the insurance company would pay nothing.

DEPENDENCIES In civil law, constructions and installations that are accessory to a dwelling but separated from it by a completely free space, or connected to it only by a fence or electrical or other connection.

DEPRECIATION Decrease in the value of property over a period of time due to use, wear, tear, and obsolescence. For example, if you paid $500 for a television set five years ago, its current value minus depreciation might be only $125, for example.

DIRECT LOSS (OR DAMAGE) A loss, which is a direct consequence of a particular peril. Fire damage to a refrigerator would be a direct loss. Spoiling of food in the refrigerator as a result of the fire damage would be an indirect loss.

DIRECT WRITER An insurance company, which sells its policies through salaried employees (licensed agents) who represent it exclusively, rather than through independent local agents, who represent several insurance companies.

DISMEMBERMENT Accidental loss of (or of the use of) a body part

DRIVER'S LICENCE, DRIVER'S PERMIT Official written authorization permitting the bearer to operate a motor vehicle.

DRIVING CLASS A term used when rating automobile insurance. Driving class indicates age of the operator, and/or sex and/or vehicle use.

DRIVING RECORD A driving record is given to each driver. The record is determined by the experience, prior accidents, traffic tickets (speeding) and driver training. The better the driving record, the lower the risk.

E   back to index

EARTHQUAKE INSURANCE Insurance covering damage caused by an earthquake as defined in the contract.

EFFECTIVE DATE The date on which an insurance policy or bond goes into effect, and from which protection is furnished.

EMBEZZLEMENT The fraudulent use of money or property, which has been entrusted to one's care.

EMPLOYERS LIABILITY INSURANCE Coverage against common law liability of an employer for accidents to employees, as distinguished from liability imposed by a workers' compensation law.

ENDORSEMENT Amendment to the policy used to add or delete coverage. Also referred to as a "rider."

EXCLUSIONS Certain causes and conditions, listed in the policy, which are not covered.

EXPIRATION The date upon which a policy will end.

EXPOSURE Degree of hazard threatening a risk because of external or internal physical conditions.

EXTENDED COVERAGE (EC) A common extension of property insurance beyond coverage for fire and lightning. Extended coverage adds insurance against loss by the perils of windstorm, hail, explosion, riot and riot attending a strike (civil commotion), aircraft damage, vehicle damage, smoke damage and volcanic eruption.

F  back to index

FAIR MARKET VALUE The price that a willing buyer would pay a willing seller, neither being under any compulsion to sell or buy.

FILINGS Proof of insurance, required by various Canadian Provincial, U.S. State and Federal authorities confirming that the trucking company has the required amount of insurance for that jurisdiction. These filings are requirements under which permits to operate are issued and maintained.

FIRE Combustion sufficient to produce a spark, flame, or glow and which is hostile (as opposed to friendly - i.e., not in the place where it is intended to be, such as in a furnace.)

FIRE INSURANCE Coverage for loss of or damage to a building and/or contents due to fire.

FIRE RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION A building, which has exterior walls, floors, and roof, constructed of masonry or other fire-resistive materials.

FLOATER POLICY A policy under the terms of which protection follows moveable property, covering it wherever it may be.

FLOOD INSURANCE A form of insurance designed to reimburse property owners from loss due to the defined peril of flood. Usually sold in connection with a government Flood Insurance plan.

FORGERY In general, any false writing with intent to defraud.

FORM An insurance policy itself or riders and endorsements attached to it.

FORTUITOUS EVENT An unforeseen accident.

FRAUD An act of willful deception and dishonesty carried out with a view to securing some advantage, to which one is not entitled.

FREIGHT BILL Similar to an invoice, and may include the Bill of Lading but also specifies the freight charges that the shipper must pay to the trucking company for shipping the cargo.

FUEL TAX REPORTS Indicate the fuel consumption and detailed mileage in each Province and State (jurisdiction), and are required in order to prove that an operator has purchased adequate fuel in a jurisdiction to have paid the appropriate taxes for the mileage operated there. They must be filed with the government, so any trucking company owner would be able to provide them to you.

G   back to index

GARAGING LOCATION The postal code where your vehicle is parked or garaged when not in use. This is usually your primary residence.

GRACE PERIOD A period after the premium due date, during which an overdue premium may be paid without penalty. The policy remains in force throughout this period.

GROSS RECEIPTS The total revenues the trucking company receives for the loads being transported.

H  back to index

HAZARD A specific situation that increases the probability of the occurrence of loss arising from a peril, or that may influence the extent of the loss. For example, accident, sickness, fire, flood, liability, burglary, and explosion are perils. Slippery floors, unsanitary conditions, shingled roofs, congested traffic, unguarded premises, and un-inspected boilers are also hazards.

HOMEOWNER INSURANCE An elective combination of coverages for the risks of owning a home. Can include losses due to fire, burglary, vandalism, earthquake, and other perils.

HOUSEKEEPING The general care, cleanliness and maintenance of an insured property.

I   back to index

I.C.C. NUMBER The Interstate Commerce Commission number (docket number) that is provided to each trucking company that has been granted the authority to travel in the United States. The use of these numbers will gradually be replaced by use of the six digit D.O.T. number, with no prefix, also issued to carriers: both of these numbers are currently required to be displayed on the side of each power unit.

IMPROVEMENTS AND BETTERMENTS Additions or changes made by a lessee at his own cost to a building, which he is occupying, which enhance its value. These become part of the realty and require special insurance consideration.

INDEMNIFY To restore the victim of a loss, in whole or in part, by payment, repair, or replacement.

INDIRECT LOSS (OR DAMAGE) Loss resulting from a peril, but not caused directly and immediately thereby. For example: Loss of property due to fire is a direct loss, while the loss of rental income as the result of the fire would be an indirect loss.

IN-FORCE Insurance on which the premiums are being paid or have been fully paid. In life insurance, usually refers to insurance by face amount. In health, usually refers to premium volume being paid to insurance company or insurance companies in aggregate.

INLAND MARINE INSURANCE A branch of the insurance business, which developed from the insuring of shipments, which did not involve ocean voyages. Exposures eligible for this form of protection are described in the nation-wide definition of Marine Insurance. Such diverse properties as bridges tunnels, jewellery and furs can now be written under Inland Marine forms.

INSPECTION Independent checking on facts about an applicant or claimant, usually by a commercial inspection agency.

INSURABILITY Acceptability of an applicant for insurance to the insurance company.

INSURANCE A formal social device for reducing risk by transferring the risks of several individual entities to an insurer. The insurer agrees, for a consideration, to assume, to a specified extent, the losses suffered by the insured.

INSURANCE POLICY Legal document issued to the insured setting out the terms of the contract of insurance.

INSURANCE TO VALUE Insurance written in an amount approximating the value of the property insured.

INSURED The person (or persons) whose risk of financial loss from an insured peril is protected by the policy. Sometimes call the "policyholder".

INSURER The Insurance Company.

J   back to index

JEWELLERY Watch, ring, necklace, chain, bracelet, brooch

JOINT TENANCY Ownership of property shared equally by two or more parties under which the survivor assumes complete ownership. This is different from a tenancy in common where the heirs of a deceased party to the tenancy inherit his or her share.

L  back to index

LAPSE Termination of a policy because of failure to pay the premium.

LESSEE The person, to whom a lease is granted, commonly called the tenant.

LESSOR The person granting a lease, also known as the landlord.

LIABILITY INSURANCE In an accident where you are charged with injuring another person or damaging his or her property, liability insurance pays the cost of your legal defense, as well as the cost of any damages for which you are found legally responsible. Liability, Collision and Comprehensive These are the three main types of coverage available in an auto insurance policy. Liability pays other people if you've injured them or damaged their property. Collision pays to repair damage to your car caused by (what else?) collisions. Comprehensive pays you for your losses due to theft and other calamities that are unrelated to collisions - like damage from hail, fire, vandalism, floods, etc.

LIABILITY LIMITS The sum or sums beyond which a liability insurance company does not protect the insured on a particular policy.

LIBEL A written statement about someone, which is personally injurious to that individual.

LIMIT OF LIABILITY The maximum amount, which an insurance company agrees to pay in case of loss.

LIMITS Maximum amount a policy will pay either overall or under a particular coverage.

LOSS Generally refers to:1. Amount of reduction in the value of an insured's property caused by an insured peril, 2. Amount sought through an insured's claim, or 3. Amount paid on behalf of an insured under an insurance contract.

LOSS OF USE INSURANCE Coverage to compensate an insured for the loss of use of property if it cannot be used because of a peril covered by the policy.

M  back to index

MAKE AND MODEL Manufacturer and model names of a motor vehicle

MARKET VALUE The price for which something would sell, especially the value of certain types of assets, such as stocks and bonds. It is based on what they would sell for under current market conditions. For example, common stock market value would be the price of the stock as of a specified date.

MATERIAL MISREPRESENTATION The policyholder / applicant makes a false statement of any material (important) fact on his/her application. For instance, the policyholder provides false information regarding the location where the vehicle is garaged.

MATURE AGE DISCOUNT Reduction of premium payable according to the age of the insured.

MORAL HAZARD A condition of morals or habits that increase the probability of a loss from a peril.

MORALE HAZARD An attitude that increases the probability of loss from a peril. The attitude of, "It's insured; so why worry?" is an example of a morale hazard.

MORTGAGE INSURANCE POLICY In life and health insurance, a policy the benefits from which are intended to pay off the balance due on a mortgage or meet the payments on a mortgage as they fall due upon or after the death or disability of the insured.

MORTGAGEE The creditor to whom a mortgage is given and who lends money on the security of the value of the property mortgaged.

MORTGAGOR The debtor who receives money and in turn grants a mortgage on his property as security for a loan.

N  back to index

NAMED INSURED The first person in whose name the insurance policy is issued.

NAMED PERILS Named perils are the specific dangers a policy insures you against - such as fire, windstorm, and hail in a homeowner's policy, for example. These perils are "named" or listed in the policy.

NEGLIGENCE Failure to use that degree of care, which an ordinary person of reasonable prudence would use under the given circumstances. Negligence may be constituted by acts of either omission or commission or both.

NO-FAULT INSURANCE No-fault insurance is designed to speed up claims payments to accident victims and to lower the cost of auto insurance by reducing the number of lawsuits for minor claims. Under no-fault insurance, a person's own insurance company pays for financial losses like medical expenses and lost wages due to an accident, regardless of who caused it. (In a fault system, the other party's insurance company won't pay your expenses until he or she has been proved negligent.) In exchange, the right to sue may be restricted in some cases.

O  back to index

OCCASIONAL DRIVER The person who is not the primary or principal driver of the vehicle.

OCCUPANCY In insurance, this term refers to the type and character of the use of property in question.

OCCURRENCE An event that results in an insured loss. In some lines of insurance, such as Liability, it is distinguished from accident in that the loss does not have to be sudden and fortuitous and can result from continuous or repeated exposure, which results in bodily injury or property damage neither expected nor intended by the insured.

OUTBOARD MOTOR Motor attached to the outside of a boat

OWNER Person who owns property.

OWNER OCCUPANT, HOMEOWNER Person who owns a dwelling and resides there permanently.

OWNER OPERATOR The term used to describe a subcontractor who provides one or more power units (and sometimes trailers) to a carrier. The Owner Operator may drive the vehicle themselves, or hire drivers to do so (particularly in multiple vehicle situations). Where an owner/operator operates exclusively for a trucking company, the ownership is often registered jointly, with the plates registered to the trucking company.

P  back to index

PARTIAL LOSS A loss under an insurance policy which does not either (a) completely destroy or render worthless the insured property, or (b) exhaust the insurance applying thereto.

PERIL Cause of a possible loss. For example, fire, theft, or hail.

PERSONAL ARTICLES FLOATER Provides all risk coverage, subject to reasonable exclusions for valuable items such as furs, jewellery, cameras, silverware, etc. formerly insured under separate contracts. The items are generally listed by description and value. This can be contrasted to the personal effects floater.

PERSONAL EFFECTS FLOATER An inland Marine policy covering worldwide except in the insured's domicile, personal effects usually carried by a tourist. In two forms, "All Risk" or Broad Form and "Specified Perils" form.

PERSONAL INJURY Injury other than bodily injury arising out of false arrest or detention, malicious prosecution, wrongful entry or eviction, libel or slander, or violation of a person's right to privacy committed other than in the course of advertising, publishing, broadcasting or telecasting. Contrast with Advertising Injury.

PERSONAL PROPERTY Any property of an insured other than real property. Homeowner policies protect the personal property of family members, and commercial forms are used to protect many types of business personal property of an insured.

PERSONAL PROPERTY FLOATER A broad policy covering all personal property worldwide, including insured's domicile.

PERSONAL PROPERTY LIMITATIONS Don't assume everything you own is adequately insured by a standard homeowner's policy. The typical homeowner's policy provides only limited coverage for many expensive items. Extra coverage can be purchased separately.

PHYSICAL DAMAGE A generic term indicating actual damage to property.

PHYSICAL DAMAGE COVERAGE Physical damage coverage insures you against damage to your car. The physical damage section of an automobile policy can include both comprehensive coverage - which protects you against theft and vandalism, among other things - and collision coverage.

PHYSICAL HAZARD The material, structural, or operational features of the risk itself, apart from the morale or moral hazards of the persons owning or managing it.

PIN The Product Identification Number that identifies any commodity being hauled which is defined under the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations; this is also known as a 'UN' number.PILFERAGE Petty theft, especially theft of articles in less than package lots.

PLACARDED VEHICLES The vehicles with a specified sign or 'placard' displayed in the required manner on each side of the vehicle, indicating that it is carrying commodities as defined by the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations.POLICY Legal document issued to the insured setting out the terms of the contract of insurance.

POLICY EXPIRATION DATE The date when your current insurance policy expires. This date can be found on your current Declaration (or "DEC") page, insurance identification card, or recent cancellation notice. This date is not to be confused with the date of your next payment or the date when your renewal payment is due.

POLICY LIMIT The maximum amount a policy will pay, either overall or under a particular coverage.

POLICY PERIOD (OR TERM) The period during which the policy contract provides protection, e.g., six months or one or three years.

POLICY HOLDER The person (or persons) whose risk of financial loss from an insured peril is protected by the policy.

PREFERRED RISK An insurance classification indicating a risk that is superior to the average risk on which the rate has been calculated and thus eligible for a reduced rate.

PREMISES The particular location of property or a portion thereof as designated in a policy.

PREMIUM The amount of money an insurance company charges for insurance coverage.

PRIMARY RESIDENCE The place where you will reside for the majority of your policy term.

PRINCIPLE DRIVER The person who drives the car most often.

PRIVATE CARRIER A person, or company, that is in a business other than trucking, but has complex transportation needs. To satisfy this need, they may operate their own trucks, or may contract owner/operators. Either way, the private carrier differs from the Common Carrier in that they own the cargo they carry. On occasion, a Private Carrier may license itself as a Common Carrier so that it can legally haul the cargo of others for a fee, thus reducing their own net transportation costs.PRO-BILL The number system on the Freight Bill and Waybill.

PROFESSIONAL LIABILITY INSURANCE Liability insurance to indemnify professionals, doctors, lawyers, architects, etc. for loss or expense resulting from claim on account of bodily injuries because of any malpractice, error, or mistake committed or alleged to have been committed by the insured in his profession.

PROHIBITED RISK Any class of business, which an insurance company will not insure under any condition.

PROOF OF LOSS A formal statement made by the insured to the insurance company regarding a loss. The purpose of the proof of loss is to place before the company sufficient information concerning the loss to enable it to determine its liability under the policy.

PROPERTY DAMAGE LIABILITY Pays when an insured person is legally liable for damage to the property of others caused by your vehicle or your operation of most non-owned vehicles. This coverage also pays for your legal defense costs if you are sued.

PROPERTY DAMAGE UNINSURED MOTORIST Property damage uninsured or underinsured coverage protects you in situations where another driver who doesn't have adequate coverage or no insurance at all, and can't pay for your losses has wrecked your vehicle. With this coverage, your own insurance company would pay up to the limit of your policy, to have your car fixed or replaced.

PROPERTY INSURANCE Property Insurance indemnifies an insured whose property is stolen, damaged, or destroyed by a covered peril. The term property insurance includes direct or indirect property losses covered in several lines of insurance.

PROTECTION 1. Term used interchangeably with the word "coverage" to denote the insurance provided under the terms of a policy. 2. Term used to indicate the existence of fire-fighting facilities in an area known as a "protected" area.

Q  back to index

QUOTE An estimate of the cost of insurance, based on information supplied to the insurance company by the applicant.

R  back to index

RIN The Registrant Identification Number assigned by the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario, to identify plate(s) or vehicle(s) registered to a specific owner; this is typically the same as the CVOR number.

RATE The per unit cost of insurance. (See also Premium).

RATED Usually used in combination, rated-up or rated policy. A policy issued with an extra premium charge

REIMBURSEMENT Payment of an amount of money related to the amount of the loss to or on behalf of the insured upon the occurrence of a defined loss.

REINSTATEMENT Restoring a lapsed policy back in force. The reinstatement may be effective after the cancellation date, creating a lapse of coverage. Some companies require evidence of insurability and payment of past due premiums plus interest.

REINSURANCE 1. A contract of indemnity against liability by which the insurance company procures another insurance to insure it against loss or liability by reason of the original insurance. 2. Insurance by one insurance company of all or part of a risk accepted by it with another insurance company which agrees to reimburse the insurance company for the portion of the claim reinsured. The insurance company obtaining the reinsurance is called the "ceding insurance company;" the insurance company issuing the reinsurance is called the "reinsurer." A reinsurer may, in turn, seek reinsurance on some portion of the risk it has reinsured, a process known as "retrocession."

RENEWAL The continuation in full force and effect of something that is about to expire. With an insurance policy it is made either by the issuance of a new policy or renewal receipt or certificate, to take effect upon the expiration of the old policy.

REPLACEMENT COST The cost of replacing property without deduction for depreciation.

RIDER Usually known as an endorsement, a rider is an amendment to the policy used to add or delete coverage.RISK 1. A chance of loss. 2. A person or thing insured. (Impaired or substandard risk: An applicant whose physical condition or moral habits do not meet the standard on which the rate is based).

RISK MANAGEMENT Management of the pure risks to which a company might be subject. It involves analyzing all exposures to the possibility of loss and determining how to handle these exposures through such practices as avoiding the risk, retaining the risk, reducing the risk, or transferring the risk, usually by insurance.

ROBBERY The felonious taking, either by force or by fear of force, of the personal property of another, commonly known as "hold-up."

S   back to index

SETTLEMENT Usually, a policy benefit or claim payment. It connotes an agreement between both parties to the policy contract as to the amount and method of payment.

SPECIFIED PERILS An optional coverage designed to provide basic protection for your vehicle for loss or damage resulting from incidents specifically stated in your policy. A few examples of the types of losses insured under named perils coverage include fire, lightning, theft, explosion, earthquake, windstorm and hail. This coverage is optional and may be purchased in addition to the mandatory coverages required by law, and it is subject to a deductible.

SUBROGATION The right of an insurance company to step into the shoes of the party whom they compensate and sue any party whom the compensated party could have sued.

T   back to index

TENANTS POLICY A Homeowners form, which is specifically designed for people who rent.

THEFT Any act of stealing. Theft includes larceny, burglary and robbery.

THIRD PARTY INSURANCE Protection of the insured against liability for damage to or destruction of the bodies or property of others.

TOTAL LOSS A loss of sufficient size so that it can be said there is nothing left of value. The complete destruction of the property. The term is also used to mean a loss requiring the maximum amount a policy will pay.

TRAILER INTERCHANGE The transfer of trailer with or without load from one transportation line to another by written agreement. The agreement requires one trucker to reimburse the other if there are damages to the other's trailer while in his possession. There are also legal implications in the event that there is damage to the cargo and confusion or disagreement about where and when damage occurred.

TRANSFER OF RISK Shifting all or part of a risk to another party. Insurance is the most common method of risk transfer, but other devices, such as hold harmless agreements, also transfer risk. One of the four major risk management techniques. See Risk Management.

U  back to index

UMBRELLA LIABILITY POLICY A policy that pays for liability losses in excess of those covered in homeowners and auto insurance.

UNDERWRITER 1. A person trained in evaluating risks and determining the rates and coverages that will be used for them. 2. An agent, especially a life insurance agent, who might qualify as a "field underwriter." In theory, the agent is supposed to do some underwriting before submitting the case to the home office underwriter; i.e., to make a decision on the basis of facts known to him on whether or not the risk is sound and to report all facts known to him that might affect the risk.

UNDERWRITING The process of evaluating a risk for the purpose of issuing insurance coverage on it.

V  back to index

VANDALISM Used synonymously with malicious mischief; willful physical damage to property.

VANDALISM AND MALICIOUS MISCHIEF (V&MM) Damage or destruction to property, which is willful. This coverage can be purchased under many Property forms and is automatically covered under most Homeowners policies.

VALUATION Estimation of the value of an item, usually by appraisal.

VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (VIN) The vehicle identification number (VIN) on your vehicle. This number is usually found on the dashboard of your vehicle on the driver's side, and is usually listed on the vehicle registration and title. The VIN is a combination of letters and numbers 17 characters in length that can be used to identify the make, model, and year of your car.

W   back to index

WAIVER 1. A rider waiving (excluding) liability for a stated cause of accident or (especially) sickness. 2. A provision or rider agreeing to waive (forego) premium payment during a period of disability. 3. The giving up or surrender of a right or privilege that is known to exist. The agent, adjuster, or insurance company employee or official may affect it orally or in writing.

WAYBILL Identifies each specific load. A waybill is generated for each load when there is a split shipment, or to deliver a shipment before the charges have been paid. Therefore, there can be numerous waybills under one freight bill.Tripemco Burlington Insurance Group Limited, 2003... All rights reserved